The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety

The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety PDF Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309267021
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 236

Book Description
Vaccines are among the most safe and effective public health interventions to prevent serious disease and death. Because of the success of vaccines, most Americans today have no firsthand experience with such devastating illnesses as polio or diphtheria. Health care providers who vaccinate young children follow a schedule prepared by the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Under the current schedule, children younger than six may receive as many as 24 immunizations by their second birthday. New vaccines undergo rigorous testing prior to receiving FDA approval; however, like all medicines and medical interventions, vaccines carry some risk. Driven largely by concerns about potential side effects, there has been a shift in some parents' attitudes toward the child immunization schedule. The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety identifies research approaches, methodologies, and study designs that could address questions about the safety of the current schedule. This report is the most comprehensive examination of the immunization schedule to date. The IOM authoring committee uncovered no evidence of major safety concerns associated with adherence to the childhood immunization schedule. Should signals arise that there may be need for investigation, however, the report offers a framework for conducting safety research using existing or new data collection systems.

The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety

The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety PDF Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309267021
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 236

Book Description
Vaccines are among the most safe and effective public health interventions to prevent serious disease and death. Because of the success of vaccines, most Americans today have no firsthand experience with such devastating illnesses as polio or diphtheria. Health care providers who vaccinate young children follow a schedule prepared by the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Under the current schedule, children younger than six may receive as many as 24 immunizations by their second birthday. New vaccines undergo rigorous testing prior to receiving FDA approval; however, like all medicines and medical interventions, vaccines carry some risk. Driven largely by concerns about potential side effects, there has been a shift in some parents' attitudes toward the child immunization schedule. The Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety identifies research approaches, methodologies, and study designs that could address questions about the safety of the current schedule. This report is the most comprehensive examination of the immunization schedule to date. The IOM authoring committee uncovered no evidence of major safety concerns associated with adherence to the childhood immunization schedule. Should signals arise that there may be need for investigation, however, the report offers a framework for conducting safety research using existing or new data collection systems.

Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety

Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

Book Description


White Paper on Studying the Safety of the Childhood Immunization Schedule in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

White Paper on Studying the Safety of the Childhood Immunization Schedule in the Vaccine Safety Datalink PDF Author: Jason M. Glanz
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

Book Description


Immunization Safety Review

Immunization Safety Review PDF Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309170370
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 136

Book Description
In this report, the Immunization Safety Review committee examines the hypothesis of whether or not the use of vaccines containing the preservative thimerosal can cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), specifically autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and speech or language delay.

Immunization Safety Review

Immunization Safety Review PDF Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309169887
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 152

Book Description
By two years of age, healthy infants in the United States can receive up to 20 vaccinations to protect against 11 diseases. Although most people know that vaccines effectively protect against serious infectious diseases, approximately one-quarter of parents in a recent survey believe that infants get more vaccines than are good for them, and that too many immunizations could overwhelm an infant's immune system. The Immunization Safety Review Committee reviewed the evidence regarding the hypothesis that multiple immunizations increase the risk for immune dysfunction. Specifically, the committee looked at evidence of potential biological mechanisms and at epidemiological evidence for or against causality related to risk for infections, the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, and allergic disorders.

Should Vaccinations Be Mandatory?

Should Vaccinations Be Mandatory? PDF Author: Roman Espejo
Publisher: Greenhaven Publishing LLC
ISBN: 0737768622
Category : Young Adult Nonfiction
Languages : en
Pages : 128

Book Description
Vaccines are meant to help us, but there are contrary ideas as to whether vaccines are the best alternative. Supporters say that vaccines prevent deadly and serious diseases including rubella, diphtheria, smallpox, polio, and whooping cough. People against vaccination believe that children's immune systems can deal with most infections naturally. They point out that injecting questionable vaccine ingredients into a child may cause side effects, including seizures, paralysis, and death. This book examines the importance of childhood vaccinations for public health, weighing concerns about the risks of vaccines against the consequences of not vaccinating. It explores the issue of mandating vaccinations in the context of personal and religious freedom, and discusses the likelihood that the HPV vaccine will encourage early sexual activity.

The Clinician’s Vaccine Safety Resource Guide

The Clinician’s Vaccine Safety Resource Guide PDF Author: Matthew Z. Dudley
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319946943
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 392

Book Description
This book provides clinicians and their staff with essential information on the vaccines that are recommended and not recommended for their patients, the diseases these vaccines prevent, and a broad range of potential vaccine safety issues that may be brought up by their patients. Each topic, from specific vaccines to safety concerns, is covered succinctly, based upon systematic reviews of the scientific literature, with talking points to be used with patients. The organization of the information makes it easy to reference specific topics and quickly find pertinent information, with the most practical details (such as recommendations and causality conclusions) highlighted at the very beginning of the respective sections. There are also sections outlining the vaccine safety system and evidence-based strategies for how to talk with patients about vaccines. This book aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical vaccine discussions with patients, leading to more informed patients and timely vaccination. This is an ideal resource for all clinicians administering vaccines and their healthcare teams.

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set

Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set PDF Author: Robert M. Kliegman, MD
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1455775665
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 3888

Book Description
After more than 75 years, Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics remains your indispensable source for definitive, state-of-the-art answers on every aspect of pediatric care. Embracing the new advances in science as well as the time-honored art of pediatric practice, this classic reference provides the essential information that practitioners and other care providers involved in pediatric health care throughout the world need to understand to effectively address the enormous range of biologic, psychologic, and social problems that our children and youth may face. Brand-new chapters and comprehensive revisions throughout ensure that you have the most recent information on diagnosis and treatment of pediatric diseases based on the latest recommendations and methodologies. "The coverage of such a wide range of subjects relating to child health makes this textbook still the gold standard and companion for all pediatricians across the world." Reviewed by Neel Kamal, Sept 2015 "All in all, this is an excellent and detailed paediatric review textbook which represents excellent value for money..truly a textbook for the global community" Reviewed by glycosmedia.com, Sept 2015 Form a definitive diagnosis and create the best treatment plans possible using evidence-based medicine and astute clinical experiences from leading international authors-many new to this edition. A NEW two-volume layout provides superior portability and exceptional ease of use. Gain a more complete perspective. Along with a broader emphasis on imaging and molecular diagnoses and updated references, the new edition includes an increased focus on international issues to ensure relevance in pediatrics practice throughout the world. Effectively apply the latest techniques and approaches with complete updates throughout 35 new chapters, including: Innovations in Addressing Child Health and Survival in Low Income Settings; Developmental Domains and Theories of Cognition; The Reggio Emilia Educational Approach Catatonia ; Refeeding Syndrome; Altitude-associated Illness; Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases; Healthcare?Associated Infections; Intrapartum and Peripartum Infections; Bath salts and other drugs of abuse; Small Fiber Polyneuropathy; Microbiome; Kingella kingae; Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy; Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Plagiocephaly; CNS Vasculitis; Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture; and Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury. Recognize, diagnose, and manage genetic and acquired conditions more effectively. A new Rehabilitation section with 10 new chapters, including: Evaluation of the Child for Rehabilitative Services; Severe Traumatic Brain Injury; Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic Crisis Management; Spasticity; Birth Brachial Plexus Palsy; Traumatic and Sports-Related Injuries; Meningomyelocele; Health and Wellness for Children with Disabilities. Manage the transition to adult healthcare for children with chronic diseases through discussions of the overall health needs of patients with congenital heart defects, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. Understand the principles of therapy and which drugs and dosages to prescribe for every disease. Expert Consult eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience allows you to search all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.

Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century

Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century PDF Author: Archana Chatterjee
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461474388
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 500

Book Description
Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century Archana Chatterjee, editor Once hailed as a medical miracle, vaccination has come under attack from multiple fronts, including occasionally from within medicine. And while the rates of adverse reactions remain low, suggestions that vaccines can cause serious illness (and even death) are inspiring parents to refuse routine immunizations for their children--ironically, exposing them and others to potentially serious illness. Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century explains clearly how this state of affairs came into being, why it persists, and how healthcare professionals can best respond. Current findings review answers to bedrock questions about known adverse events, what vaccine additives are used for, and real and perceived risks involved in immunization. Perspectives representing pediatricians, family practitioners, nurses, parents, pharmacy professionals, the CDC, and the public health community help the reader sort out legitimate from irrational concerns. In-depth analyses discuss the possibility of links with asthma, cancer, Guillain-Barre syndrome, SIDS, and, of course, autism. Included in the coverage: Communicating vaccine risks and benefits The vaccine misinformation landscape in family medicine Perceived risks from live viral vaccines The media's role in vaccine misinformation Autoimmunity, allergies, asthma, and a relationship to vaccines Vaccines and autism: the controversy that won't go away The conundrums described here are pertinent to practitioners in pediatrics, family medicine, primary care, and nursing to help families with informed decision making. In addition, Vaccinophobia and Vaccine Controversies of the 21st Century should be read by trainees and researchers in child development and maternal and child health as the book's issues will have an impact on future generations of children and their families.

Methods for Quantifying Outcome Misclassification Bias in Electronic Health Record-based Studies of Immunization Schedule Safety

Methods for Quantifying Outcome Misclassification Bias in Electronic Health Record-based Studies of Immunization Schedule Safety PDF Author: Sophia Newcomer
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780438002883
Category : Immunization
Languages : en
Pages : 148

Book Description
While most vaccine safety research has focused on acute adverse events, a 2013 Institute of Medicine report recommended observational studies on chronic, long-term outcomes following cumulative exposure to vaccines in early childhood. The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention's Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) has initiated such research using electronic health record (EHR) and medical claims data from health plans nationwide; however, outcome misclassification has been cited as a major methodological challenge. Misclassification of clinical outcomes has garnered considerable attention in EHR-based research, with numerous studies validating algorithms for identifying outcomes in these data. However, there has been minimal attention given to using results from such validation studies to quantify and correct for bias of an exposure-outcome association caused by such misclassification. In this dissertation, simulations of VSD immunization schedule studies were developed to measure the magnitude of bias caused by outcome misclassification, and to test analytic solutions for this problem. The simulations' results revealed that previous approaches, such as estimating overall outcome positive predictive values (PPVs), offer limited benefits for correcting bias (Aim 1a), while quantitative bias analysis (QBA) methods are effective (Aim 1b). For example, within a cohort of n= 257,010 children, simulations showed that Type 1 error rates of 100% occurred with outcome PPVs of 90% when differential outcome specificity was present. Since PPVs are the most commonly-reported estimate of algorithm validity, lesser-known bias analysis methods using only predictive values were evaluated (Aim 2). These results revealed that outcome PPVs should be estimated by exposure, a departure from current practices in EHR-based research. Practical guidance was developed for integration of quantitative bias analysis within immunization schedule research (Aim 3), including demonstrating these methods within an example study of immunization schedule exposure and pediatric asthma. Bias from misclassification of clinical outcomes in EHR data is a long-recognized problem with underappreciated solutions. Failure to address outcome misclassification bias could lead to erroneous conclusions about the safety of the early childhood immunization schedule. The work presented in this dissertation challenges prevailing assumptions about the impact of EHR data misclassification, and establishes a foundation for implementing methodological solutions to address this problem.